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Domestic Waterfowl Club.

Campbell Ducks.

Campbell Ducks

Campbell  Ducks
for history see below
Broodiness: pretty useless most will sit long enough for you to put fertile eggs under her then walk away. Bred to be a non sitter but as many are crossed unless bought from a good breeder some will sit but are rare
Needs: Do not require water for swimming to stay health, but they enjoy it. Prefer shallow trays or even a washing up bowl with a brick in it . . no brick produces a tortoise with webbed feet hybrid very funny but also Very messy!
Notes: Excellent foragers, keeping gardens and ponds free of, slugs,snails and worms; bred as a back garden duck two females are very happy with chickens or on their own and will give a dozen eggs per week if fed well.

Dark Campbell Ducks
Appearance: Drakes, Beetle green head & neck, Shoulder breast light brown each feather finely pencilled with dark grey brown shading to silver grey nearer the vent - Bill blue/grey/green with a black bean. Legs and feet orange
Ducks, Dark brown version of the khaki with similar lacing. Feet and webs dark brown colour with slate bill Size: Drakes, 2.5 to 3 kg Ducks, 2 to 2.5 kg
Dark Campbell Defects; Yellow Bill; Any white in neck or bib; Same feather colour under wing (caused if crossed with Khaki); Lack of feather lacing in ducks ie uniform smooth khaki feathers like the drake (caused if crossed with Orpingtons !) Lack of fine lacing in males. Blue eggs
******genetically a dusky format of the khaki . Blue so far partially unstable format is produced by Dark males to khaki females******
Genetics  Dark Dusky Phase/ symbol Li+  /Dominant..   This gene is the wild-type gene present in the mallard and the Rouen breed. It allows full expression of the three alleles of the M+locus.They do not have a brown gene but are a darker version of the Khaki as in :-Allelic to mallard and restricted and recessive to both.The dusky pattern is darker and plainer than the mallard both in the day-old and adult.

White Campbell Ducks
Appearance: Drakes, Orange/Yellow bill, and webs; white neck, back and tails -
Ducks, White with Orange/ yellow bill and webs Size: Drakes, 2.5 to 3kg Ducks, 2 to 2.5 kg
White Campbell Defects; Flesh coloured Bill; Eye stripes in young birds as they feather... covered once they get their adult plumage. Brown eyes. Blue eggs
Genetic profile White Gene :Recessive white/ symbol c/ Recessive This gene is responsible for the white in common white breeds. In the homozygous state, recessive white masks all other color genes . as in the White Campbell
 
KHAKI CAMPBELL Ducks
Appearance: Drakes, Green bill, greenish bronze head, brown-bronze neck, back and tails -
Ducks, Khaki colour with green bill Size: Drakes, 2.5 to 3 kg Ducks, 2to 2.5 kg
Khaki Campbell Defects; Yellow Bill; Pinkish Bill. Any white in neck orbib; White or light under wing (caused if crossed with Darks); Lack of feather lacing in ducks ie uniform smooth khaki feathers like the drake (caused if crossed with Orpingtons !). Blue eggs
Names:-Le canard Kaki Campbell, . . original ?
Country Of Origin;......... Great Britain. An early 20th Century Breed
Carriage;    Angled carriage laced feathering 
Purpose;...   .......Eggs..meat(males)
Egg Colour .....300-350 white eggs/year weighing approx.,71-75 gms each
Breed Defects. .. . . .Blue eggs or as below 
Breed info . . . . designed to be with chickens a splasher rather than a swimmer
Breed Hints....Kept as trio or more. will go not broody and hatch as arule ** unsuitable as a pair in Khaki due to the energy of the drakes **
Weights; 4 to 6 pounds . . .Meat Production: High quality very leanmeat approx. 1.25 to 2.25 kg drakes at 16/18 weeks
Breed Tip  Incubation: 28 days Maturity: ie rubbish broodies and mothers, normally sit for 65% of time needed or lose any resulting babies 
Flying .  rarely flies a good back garden all rounder;  If it takes off seldom steers well and lands worse !
Genetic profileKhaki    Gene :Dusky / symbol md   / Recessive. Allelic to mallard and restricted and recessive toboth. The dusky pattern is darker and plainer than the mallard both in the day-old andadult. Breed examples are Khaki Campbell and Buff Orpington




Male in eclipse plumage


squished but correct colouring








White Campbells

 
Darks








Any hatched with entire pink bills do NOT use for breeding as it is dominant

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Better bill colour




Breed History; . . . Campbell's have a well known history ...it was introduced in 1901 by Mrs Adelle Campbell of Uley , Gloucestershire who wanted a breed for laying white table eggs that was not broody , reluctant to fly off and reacted nearer to a fowl .The breed was bred from Mallard ; Fawn and White Runners and Rouen with a very vague standard in order to keep the utility properties of the breed. From these a white sport was standardized as the White Campbell and a Dark perfected was  by a Mr H R S Humphreys in Devon to enable a classic gold / silver cross mating for sex linkeage. Leslie Bonnet in 1960  has the white as almost extinct and the dark  still reasonably popular  as a sex linked base for  other ducks .This colouration did not find favour after the second world war and declined to almost critical levels and although the white and the khaki are often seen very few breeders keep the dark Campbell and due to the small gene pool a number throw eye stripes which are incorrect for the breed and a throwback as are any of the colours that lay blue or green eggs ... these birds should not really be bred from as not up to the breed standard..

 According to Wright in 1901 "The original strain was descended from one duck which exhibited most remarkable laying powers, and was probably something of the Rouen colour, since the original Campbells arc somewhat like Rouens in appearance, but much lighter, with a plain head of a greyish brown shade, and no streak running from the eye: the drakes have grey backs and a pale claret breast—the legs yellow. The object was to produce excellence in laying, with fair table qualities and quick maturity ; and it is stated that for years past the egg-average has been over 200 per annum, while the young are hatched at all seasons, and do well all the year round. They are not very large, stock birds weighing 4 lbs. to 5 lbs.," If so this resembles the dark but with a differing leg colour now darker orange ?

 Lewis Wright 1910  A successful attempt to create by crossing and selection a new breed of ducks which should exhibit real superiority in useful qualities has resulted in what are known Campbell as Campbell ducks, produced by Ducks. Mrs. Campbell, of Uley, in Gloucestershire. These are now bred in two colours. The original strain was descended from one duck which exhibited most remarkable laying powers, and was probably something of the Rouen colour, since the original Campbells arc somewhat like Rouens in appearance, but much lighter, with a plain head of a greyish brown shade, and no streak running from the eye: the drakes have grey backs and a pale claret breast—the legs yellow. The object was to produce excellence in laying, with fair table qualities and quick maturity ; and it is stated that for years past the egg-average has been over 200 per annum, while the young are hatched at all seasons, and do well all the year round. They are not very large, stock birds weighing 4 lbs. to 5 lbs., and in flavour considerably resemble the wild Mallard, which was used in crossing as one of the foundations of the strain. The other sub-variety is more recent, and is known as the Khaki or Khaki-Campbell duck. The drake is khaki colour all over except the head and stern, which are bronze green ; the duck is entirely khaki colour, a delicate lacing of darker buff showing on each feather. The Indian Runner has been used in crossing to produce this variety, and as the result the Khaki duck is of extremely active habits, doing best on a good range, and showing very little desire for swimming—in fact, Mrs. Campbell, we believe, only allows them drinking water. At twelve weeks old the ducklings come up to about 4 lbs. to 4.5 lbs., the laying being about the same average as the other strain. Whatever time of year they are hatched, they are said to commence laying at or before six months old, so that by hatching about three lots, very early, medium, and late, eggs are easily obtained every day in the year."

 The Khaki  was then perfected within a few years and contrary to what the 'amended'  modern standards say the Dark was first then the Khaki  and one of them thew the white sports  for White Campbells. Later sports became the Coaley Fawn and the Welsh Harlequin  and probably the Overberg as all are the same size and side profile


From Karswood booklet 'Fortunes from Eggs "  1919 one of the earlier Khaki engravings

Somewherev I have an early Campbell booklet  with pics etc . . . it is very very safe !

related links

Campbell.........Breeders

Laura Ewan & David Kay, Lancashire
07951 735 599 White

John Palmer, Essex
01708 348 088

Julie Reading, Wiltshire
 01666 860 868 Dark & Khaki

Ros King   /WILTSHIRE/ Tel 01747 870 048/
rosking@freenetname.co.uk   Khaki; Dark; White,